Several updates on the theme appearance. First: "'Appearance of impropriety' is now dead in Kentucky" --
- "In any event, the former Model Code included Canon 9, which stated 'A Lawyer Should Avoid Even the Appearance of Impropriety.' While not actually a Disciplinary Rule, the 'appearance of impropriety' was 'a favorite of some courts, which quoted it with great frequency over the years,' as Ronald Rotunda and John Dzienkowski note in their useful treatise, Legal Ethics — The Lawyer’s Deskbook on Professional Responsibility. It was especially used as a basis for disqualifying lawyers for a broad range of conduct, ranging from conflicts to other kinds of misconduct."
- "Earlier this month, in Marcum v. Scorsone, the Kentucky Supreme Court overturned 18 years of precedent, holding that 'disqualification based on an appearance of impropriety is inappropriate under the existing Rules of Professional Conduct,' and that if that were the standard, 'all the former client has to do is claim discomfort with the subsequent representation to create the appearance that something untoward is going on …' Moreover, the court said, the standard 'creates the impression that courts are ruling based on appearances rather than facts.'"
- "So the appearance of impropriety is dead — at least in Kentucky. If faced with a disqualification motion — or if making one — you should research carefully to see how courts in your jurisdiction treat the old standard. It will make a difference in how easy or hard it might be to prevail, whichever side of the motion you are on."
And finally, bridging from fiction back to reality (or hypothetical reality), from the New York Legal Ethics Reporter comes a lengthy analysis: "'Illegal' Conduct Under Rule 1.2: When Does Advice to a Client Violate an Attorney's Ethical Obligations?" --
- "Many attorneys have experienced situations in which a client has sought advice about proposed actions which 'push the legal limit' or are even clearly illegal. How far—if at all—may attorneys go in assisting a client to engage in questionable activity?"
- "At first glance, the New York Rules of Professional Conduct (NYRPC) appear to provide some clear guidance. Rule 1.2(d) prohibits an attorney from counseling a client to engage in conduct that the attorney knows is 'illegal.' [NYRPC Rule 1.2(d).] In practice, however, application of Rule 1.2(d) is not always straightforward... A close look at the application of Rule 1.2(d) demonstrates the difficulty of defining 'illegal' conduct under the Rule and why some guidance would be beneficial."
- "An important source for interpreting the meaning of NYRPC 1.2(d) is the history of the Rule, which would also involve an examination of the ABA Model Rule. The ABA Model Rule 1.2(d) is nearly identical to New York’s Rule 1.2(d) with a very important distinction: the ABA uses 'criminal' in place of 'illegal.'"
- "Some types of civil “wrongs” would certainly appear to fall outside of the rubric of “illegal” conduct under the Rule. A good example is breach of contract."
- "Ultimately, the authors do not take a position on how extensive Rule 1.2(d)’s prohibition should be. But if the Rule is going to continue to use the term 'illegal' instead of 'criminal,' instruction on the meaning of 'illegal' would be beneficial."